Energy-saving lamps, also known as energy-saving light bulbs, electronic bulbs, compact fluorescent lamps and integrated fluorescent lamps, refers to the combination of fluorescent lamps and ballasts (ballast) into a whole lighting equipment.
The size of energy-saving lamps and incandescent lamp similar to the interface with the lamp holder and incandescent lamp is the same, so you can directly replace the incandescent lamp. The official name of the energy-saving lamp is rare earth three-color compact fluorescent lamp, born in the 1970s in the Netherlands, Philips. Was the country into the 863 promotion plan, the first in Shandong Jiaodong Peninsula promotion, one of the earliest response to the two factories for the Weihai North and Qixia lighting factory, but because of the early cost is relatively high, the promotion of more difficult. Guangdong relies on its excellent geographical location, relying on national policy support, low-cost raw materials to mass production of energy-saving lamps, and sold to the country. Because the early people for the concept of energy-saving lamps are more vague, Guangdong production of halogen powder energy-saving lamps low cost, the market price is relatively low, 80% of the country's energy-saving lamps from Guangdong production, of which 80% Zhongshan town production.
This light source to achieve the same light energy output under the premise of consumption of ordinary incandescent light consumption of only 1/5 to 1/4, which can save a lot of lighting power and costs, so called energy-saving lamps. Guangdong relies on its excellent geographical location, relying on national policy support, low-cost raw materials to mass production of energy-saving lamps, and sold to the country. Because the early people for the concept of energy-saving lamps are more vague, Guangdong production of halogen powder energy-saving lamps low cost, the market price is relatively low, 80% of the country's energy-saving lamps from Guangdong production, of which 80% Zhongshan town production.
This light source to achieve the same light energy output under the premise of consumption of ordinary incandescent light consumption of only 1/5 to 1/4, which can save a lot of lighting power and costs, so called energy-saving lamps.
Which is composed of an "upper lamp cap structure" and a "bottom lamp structure"; an energy-saving electronic ballast is arranged inside the bonding structure; characterized in that the upper and lower ends of the structure , And a plurality of through holes are arranged around the outer wall of the cavity structure for the purpose of multiple insulation, shunt, heat dissipation and ensuring that the cavity structure is provided in the lower joint structure part Energy saving lamp normal life.
Energy-saving lamps can be divided into self-ballasted fluorescent lamps (electronic energy-saving lamps) and single-ended fluorescent lamps (PL plug-in energy-saving tube lights) two categories.
Self-ballasted fluorescent lamp comes with ballast, starter lamp full control circuit, and equipped with spiral lamp or socket-type lamp. The circuit is generally enclosed in a housing, the lamp assembly in the control circuit to high-frequency electronic ballast-based. This compact compact energy-saving lamp can be installed directly on the standard incandescent lamp holder, direct replacement of incandescent lamp, the use of more convenient. Single-ended fluorescent lamps refer to single-lamp low-pressure mercury vapor discharge lamps, most of which are emitted by the UV-activated phosphor coating produced by the discharge. Can be removed from the lamps and lanterns for the design of the lamps and lanterns, with the integration of lamps and lan control circuit to achieve the decorative or optimized lighting design purposes. The lamp holder has two kinds of needle (2P) and four pin (4P). The two-pin lamp holder contains a starter (also called jump bubble) and anti-interference capacitor, and the four-pin lamp has no circuit components.
Energy-saving lamp is actually a compact, comes with ballast fluorescent lamp, energy-saving lamps lit when the first through the electronic ballast to the lamp filament heating, the filament began to launch electrons (due to filament coated with some electronic powder) The electrons collide with the argon atoms in the lamp. After the argon atoms collide, the energy is taken and the internal mercury atoms are hit. The mercury atoms are ionized after absorbing energy, and the tubes form a plasma state.
The voltage across the lamp directly through the plasma conduction and issued 253.7nm UV, ultraviolet light to stimulate the phosphor light, because the fluorescent lamp temperature of about 1160K work, than the incandescent lamp operating temperature 2200K-2700K much lower, so Its life is also great progress, to reach more than 5000 hours, because it uses more efficient electronic ballast, while there is no incandescent current thermal effect, the energy conversion efficiency of the phosphor, reaching 50 lumens per watt above, so Saving energy.
Some large-scale energy-saving lamps enterprises in the industry well-known, but these industry brands, Op, NVC, three male, through Shida, Foshan lighting in the domestic market share is low. Price positioning basically determines the use of the purchase group. The most typical high-end line brand Netherlands Philips, Germany OSRAM lighting, the use of a wide range of indoor and outdoor lighting, brand clothing stores, high-end restaurant use, high-income groups of home light source use. Second-tier brands (such as Op, NVC, three male aurora, etc.) in the provincial capital city, the secondary market of large commercial license basically occupy half of the country. Due to purchasing power, the ability to consume the shackles of the second line outside the low-cost energy-saving lamps brand is the prefecture-level market, county-level market world. Overall, energy-saving lamps industry competition.
With the increasing emphasis on energy conservation in the world, in the field of domestic lighting, energy-saving lamps to replace the traditional wave of traditional light products have come. Following the world more than a dozen countries and regions have been released after the incandescent phase-out plan, China released the "phase out of incandescent road map." To 2016 years ago, the domestic phase will be gradually phasing out incandescent, and then a comprehensive introduction of energy-saving lamps can save 48 billion degrees. "Twelve Five" period, the domestic will increase the intensity of green lighting projects, energy-saving lamp market capacity will appear several times the growth, while the market development potential. China's energy-saving lamps in 2010 the overall size of the market reached 100 billion yuan. It is expected that by 2015, the domestic energy-saving lamp market will reach 500 billion yuan, the annual compound growth rate will reach 38%.
Due to the working principle of energy-saving lamps, mercury in the lamp will inevitably become a major source of pollution.
1 ordinary energy-saving lamps containing about 5 milligrams of mercury, only enough to cover a ballpoint pen tip, but infiltrated the ground may cause 1800 tons of water pollution. As the low boiling point of mercury, can be evaporated at room temperature, waste energy-saving lamp broken, the instantaneous concentration of mercury in the surrounding air over a hundred times. And once into the human body mercury exceeded, it will destroy the human central nervous system, and the body inhalation of 25 mg of mercury vapor can be lethal.
China's energy-saving lamps to promote the strategy has a long history, only in 2008 nationwide to promote energy-saving lamps 62 million, until 2009, it is up to 1.2 billion. National promotion of energy-saving lamps up to 200 million. China in the energy-saving lamps harmless or blank, broken energy-saving lamps with the garbage was sent to the landfill landfill. 2006 China's scrapped mercury-containing lighting equivalent to 40 watts of standard fluorescent lamps up to 1 billion, due to improper disposal and release to the atmospheric environment of mercury as much as 70 to 80 tons.
Old energy-saving lamps because of mercury, lead and other toxic and harmful elements, is second only to the second largest living garbage waste "mercury sources", China's energy-saving lamp recycling system is very "naive", such as improper disposal, pollution risk Ignore.
Some of the spiral-type electronic energy-saving lamps in the capillary lead, mercury, ballasts in the lead, plastic parts of the PBB, PBDE exceeded; and some energy-saving lamps in the capillary, lamp, ballast all lead Excessive, excessive mercury in the capillary.
"It is very energy-saving, no way to recover" has become one of today's e-waste outstanding problems. Found that both the supermarket or waste recycling station, waste energy-saving lamps, "white to not." There was a business to engage in public welfare recycling, but was considered to take over the renovation and then sell energy-saving lamps Energy-saving lamp recycling box to pad sponge, transport carefully. Energy-saving lamps may produce mercury pollution after retirement, reasonable and perfect disposal of waste energy-saving lamps has become a top priority. This mercury-containing energy-saving fluorescent lamps after the disposal of waste disposal has become a national problem.
Shanghai e-waste trading center has a set of annual waste disposal of energy-saving lamps 1700 tons of imported devices in the country is very rare. In this type of processing line, wearing protective equipment staff to waste energy-saving lamps sent to the processing equipment, the crushing, mercury absorption process recovery. It is understood that the Shanghai Electronic Waste Center, a staff member serious "enough to eat", mainly by some organs and units to send point of waste lamp over.
The country currently only three units by the state disposal of mercury waste lamp license, but because of the high cost of transportation, transportation conditions harsh and other reasons, the three companies operating rate is not high.
First, vigorously promote waste energy-saving lamps can not "thrown out". To increase publicity efforts to establish energy-saving lamps as "dangerous" is strictly prohibited arbitrarily discarded and illegal treatment of social consensus.
The second is to strengthen the producer environmental responsibility.
Third, increase the intensity of financial intervention.
To improve the electronic waste pollution prevention and control regulations. Forced the implementation of the manufacturer recycling waste electronic products system; in the city strictly implement the waste separation and recycling system, in particular, require large users to put put waste lamps. At the same time, the government should support the development of waste energy saving lamp recycling industry. Through the adoption of financial support, tax incentives, technical introduction and other measures to support and encourage the promotion of waste energy-saving lamps recycling business entities in order to achieve paid recovery, improve recycling efficiency.
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